Tuesday, March 30, 2010

Grooming, group size, and feeding priority in female Rhesus macaques

(Photo by James Warwick/Getty Images. On the left is Esther, on the right is Terry, and they were two of my favorite focal animals ever!)

Here is the abstract of the poster I am currently working on for the AAPAs:

Grooming, group size, and feeding priority in female Rhesus macaques
M.A. Rodrigues¹, D.L. Hannibal²

The social brain hypothesis predicts that larger groups require greater investment in allogrooming for social cohesion. It has been suggested that low-ranking individuals allogroom to gain tolerance from high-ranking individuals for access to food resources. Here, we report on data collected from twenty-eight adult female rhesus macaques on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. Contrary to the social brain hypothesis predictions, we found that individuals in large groups (10.3%) do not invest more time in grooming than individuals in small groups (13.6%) (F=1.302, p=0.263). Furthermore, time spent allogrooming does not explain access to food resources among middle- and low-ranking females (F=0.403; p=0.533), nor does the interaction of group size and grooming (F=0.032; p=0.859), the interaction of rank and grooming (F=0.005, p=0.943), or the interaction of group size, rank, and grooming (F=2.684; p=0.118). The interaction of group size and rank was significant (F=6.123, p=0.022). Removing grooming from the model, however, negates the significance of the group size and rank interaction. The benefits of membership in a large group outweigh the disadvantages of increased intragroup competition for low-ranking individuals. In smaller groups, however, low-ranking individuals are constrained by both intergroup and intragroup competition. Furthermore, grooming does not appear to offset the disadvantages of low rank or small group size. While increasing group size and rank improve access to food resources, and the contribution of grooming for tolerance was not significant in this study, further investigation on the role of grooming in the complex dynamics of intergroup and intragroup competition for food resource is warranted.

Round-up of interesting posts

There's some great posts/news articles I've seen recently that I wanted to highlight.

--Seeing Race's discussion of Belief in Racial Equality and the American Dream

--Laelaps dicussion of Hyena Laughs

--Hug the Monkey's post on Mothering more Essential than Food

--UIUC's Lab of Evolutionary Endocrinology (I have lab envy! wish it existed back when I was an undergrad there!) has a fantastic post on Premenstrual Syndrome

--BeastApe links to a great story on Baboons raid wine grapes farms in South Africa

--Prancing Papio's discussion of Shifts in Mating Systems in Snub-nosed Monkeys

Friday, March 19, 2010

In Defense of Primatology

Do you think that primatology is all about cute fuzzy-wuzzy animals? Look at the above picture. That's a picture of me with a nice dollop of howler monkey feces on my head. Cute, right?

This post is in part of reaction to a blog post entitled "Why I am not a primatologist" by PalMD over at ScienceBlogs, and because I was rather offended by it, I feel I need to address some misconceptions about what primatologists do, and WHY we do it.

There's a general misunderstanding that, because we study cute, charismatic animals that share a lot of similarities with us (not surprisingly, because we ARE part of this taxonomic group), our science is somehow less valid or relevant. Or that our results and conclusions are questionable, because we must be completely swayed by our narcissistic attachment to anything cute and human-like. We are assumed to be unreasonably biased by anthropomorphic interpretations and bonds with our study animals (either generally, to the species/taxa, or to individual animals). This assumption is summed up quite well by the term "monkey huggers."

Now first, let me start out by saying, I'm probably the most cute-oriented person you will ever come across, and I'm sure that comes across in my posts. I think many primates, particularly spider monkeys, are cute and charming. I find baby animals of all kinds adorable, and am a huge fans of websites such as zooborns and LOLcats. Looking at cute pictures or videos, or interacting with cute animals (or children) are generally a great way for me to deal with stress (probably because the oxytocin response to this adorable stimuli dampens my normally high stress levels).

BUT, quite honestly, that has NOTHING to do with why I STUDY primates. If my goal was to spend time watching and cuddling something cute and furry, I could very easily stay home with my foster dog and cats (instead of leaving them, my boyfriend, and my friends to spend over a year in an isolated, swampy, mosquito-infest rainforest). Or if I wanted to turn that motivation into a career, I could spend much more time interacting with cute and furry animals if I worked at an animal shelter or as a veterinarian.

The reason I study primates is because they are a fascinating group of socially and cognitive complex animals, and because studying them (our closest relatives) can provide insight into the evolution of aspects of these traits--which can help us to understand the evolutionary pressures that shaped our own species. Since I'm interested in the evolution of social bonds and relationships, primate social structures are great systems for studying these topics.

And I haven't been a "monkey person" my whole life. My first favorite animals were cheetahs. And by age 8, I had decided I wanted to study social development and vocalizations in humpback whales and bottlenose dolphins. My interest in primates did not develop until my sophomore-junior years of college, and have a lot to do with the courses I was taking in psychology, biology, and philosophy. In particular, my interest was piqued by the fact that ethical arguments regarding the treatments of primates (as well as other animals) were governed by assumptions of what these animals were cognitively and emotionally capable of, rather than the most recent research on these topics.

Furthermore, I've already addressed the issue of anthropomorphism previously. What I find baffling is why those of us that have spent the most time reading the literature as well as actually studying primates are assumed to be unreasonably biased, yet those that criticize us for anthropomorphism are assumed to be unbiased. First, the best thing you can do is too look at the actual data that primatologists are yielding, and see if it supports their conclusions. Second, its interesting that it seems to me that those that are most strongly against anthropomorphism (or, more accurately, attributing non-human animals with cognitive and emotional capabilities that are more impressive or complex than our previous assumptions), seem to have a strong bias toward using non-human animals, including primates, in invasive medical research. While that is an ethical question that is far too complex for me to address in this post, let me just say that I think the most reasonable way of guiding our ethical guidelines should be our most informed knowledge about the cognitive and emotional abilities of the animals in question.

PalMD states:

"Since mind is a brain-dependent phenomenon, there are often anatomic correlates to our behaviors, and even to our beliefs, but since other animals do not utilize complex language, we will never know if they have "beliefs" which correlate with behavior or anatomy. We don't really understand what it means for a human to have post-traumatic stress disorder, so when we say that an elephant has it, there is no way to know if that set of behaviors is anything like our own experiences."

We can't ask them, but there are a number of very sophisticated experiments that can be used to understand "beliefs" that are being used with both non-human primates as well as infants (for example, there are many studies that use gaze length in response to "normal" and "abnormal" scenarios--individuals stare longer at results that surprise them, such as suspension of gravity). However, the contexts in which we can use such methods can be challenging, because experimental set-ups are often limited to captive studies (although there are some brilliant field studies out there as well). As for say, post-traumatic stress, I would say, if the animal exhibits similar kinds of distress behavior (for example, extreme startle response, extreme anxiety, self-directed or stereotypic behaviors, avoidance of stimuli associated with the past trauma) in conjunction with similar physiological patterns (such as elevated cortisol concentrations), then I think it would be parsimonious to conclude that the experiences are likely very similar.

Nonetheless, I do think that there are some reasonable objections to the kinds of data that we get within primatology, particularly field primatology. Behavioral data is messy, and isn't ever going to be as clear-cut as other types of data. Physiological data is challenging too, when you are measuring hormones from fecal samples instead of blood, in very uncontrolled conditions. Sample sizes tend to be small, and getting data at all is VERY labor-intensive (have you ever spent any time trying to follow a quick-moving monkey through a swamp? It's not easy). So unfortunately, to build up data, it takes a while, and usually requires collaborative effort or compiling the conclusions of many studies.

But at the same time, it's important. Studying primates allows us to investigate certain selective pressures in the environments in which they evolved. Furthermore, because so many primates are threatened, it is crucial that we study them, because just the act of conducting research allows us to monitor and protect populations, and our findings may be applicable to conservation efforts (as well as efforts in improving captive welfare and reproduction).

Finally, I also want to address that often we take advantage of the cute and charismatic aspects of our study animals, as well as their similarities and relation to us, in efforts to raise awareness and interest in conservation. The truth is that highlighting these aspects are often one of the most successful ways of generating interest in the animals and their habitat, which is crucial to conservation efforts. And if you haven't noticed, primates are severely threatened. That alone, I think, is justification enough for posting as many cute monkey pictures as I can find.

Baby Squirrel Monkey!

Head to Zooborns to read the full story on this adorable new addition to the Edmonton Valley Zoo.

Friday, March 12, 2010


My dissertation project focuses on some aspects of stress, obviously. This is slightly ironic, because grad school, my project, fieldwork, and life in general all are quite good at showering me with stress.

I'm about two months away from my starting my fieldwork, and quite honestly, I'm starting to view it with dread. This is a shame, because I love the forest, I love my monkeys, and its been a couple years since I've been there (my field last field trip was two months in the summer of 2008). But, there's just some much to worry about before I can leave. Getting the financial stuff in order to take care of all that is necessary. Finishing up some unfinished projects, including the pilot project, that have been delayed by financial challenges, manuscript rejections, and some technical problems. About a month ago, my hard drive died. Luckily, my heroes at Microcenter were able to recover all my files, and put in a new hard drive, but because I have data, proposals, manuscripts, all sorts of stuff divided between the external harddrive, this new harddrive, and even my old laptop, I haven't been able to get things organized yet. And I still haven't re-installed SPSS, which means some data analysis I had been working on months ago isn't even accessible right now on this computer.

And if that weren't enough, I'm at the end of wrapping a quarter of teaching a new course. BUT, unfortunately, the flash drive I store ALL my teaching powerpoints, as well as other stuff, seems to have a mechanical failure. I've managed to deal with what's necessary to keep on top of my current class, (mostly), but what's sad is I've lost of teaching materials (including my lectures for Intro to Physical Anthropology, which after teaching six consecutive sections, have been refined to near-perfection). I still has some incomplete and older versions of some of that stuff, but not the most updated.

And then there's been some violent events on campus that have quite honestly shaken me a bit more than I thought they would. Two weeks ago, a girl was raped on campus at 8:45 on a Tuesday evening, right outside the building next to where the Anthro dept. is located. And to put that in perspective, I teach an evening class, Tuesdays and Thursdays, and less than an hour and half before that incident, I was standing just 50 m down from where the attack happened, waiting for my boyfriend to pick me up. And then just last Tuesday, there was a shooting on campus. It happened early in the morning (I think around 3 am?), and involved a maintenance worker who had received a poor work evaluation and was about to lose his job. He shot two colleagues, and then himself.

I know violent events happen all over--I've known that campuses are not always safe places, and I've taken two sessions of the RAD (Rape Aggression Defense) self-defense courses that are taught by campus police. And this weeks shooting is clearly not the first of university shootings. But this time, it's hit a bit close to home.

And finally, there's some odd drama with some people and situations involved with my field site. I'm not sure what's going on, and I don't know how serious it is, or if it's gonna affect my research, but it is worrying me.

So that's some of what's been affecting me lately. I've been increasingly up all night, unable to sleep, because I keep on stressing about things, or getting up in the middle of the night to work on stuff because I'm mentally running through it. But nonetheless, I've been feeling exhausted and worn out, and still feel like I'm not quite on top of everything.

At least all the reading I do about stress has made me aware of the importance of coping mechanisms, and right now I'm very greatful for the some of the social support I have from my boyfriend, friends, and pets. I think it's time to go cuddle with one of my kitties and see if some nice oxytocin rushes can calm my stress responses.

Thursday, March 4, 2010

New baby bonobo!

There's a new baby bonobo at the Columbus Zoo! The baby's mom is Susie, who I personally think is one of the most beautiful bonobos I've ever seen. In the video, you can see Susie with her new baby--there's also someone to the side, grooming Susie's arm. I'm not sure who it is, but I would suspect that it is Lola, Susie's juvie daughter.

I can't wait to go see how they're all doing!